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NUTRITION (VII)

NUTRITION AND OSTEOPOROSIS

 Osteoporosis is a bone illness characterized by the weakening of the bone mass with alteration in the microarchitecture of the bones which causes a higher bone weakness causing a higher possibility of fracture.

 Bone recuperation (formation and re-absorption) is a continuous restoration process of the bone which prevents the accumulation of lesions and fatigue and helps to adapt the mechanical needs of the moment. Its equilibrium helps to constantly preserve the skeletal bone mass.

 Osteoporosis is produced by an unbalance between the formation and re-absorption of the bone, mainly in the latter, with the influence of different factors in the bones change.

 Amongst these factors the following arise:

Genetic factors.
Hormonal factors.
Nutritional factors.
Local factors.

 Osteoporosis is not symptomatic; fractures appear suddenly. These are caused by a slight traumatism or spontaneously. They can affect any bone presenting symptoms according to the affected part. Mostly they are the vertebrae, those of the radius, the neck of the femur, the hip and humerus.

 The risk factors are:

 Sex: more frequently among women.
 Age: starting at 35.
 Race: Mostly amongst the white race.
 Disease: Hyper parathyroid
 Direct family background:
 Low intake of calcium, inadequate intake of vitamin D.
 Excessive consumption of tobacco.
 Excessive consumption of alcohol and coffee (more than 3 cups a day)
 Sedentary life
 Low sun exposure.
 Very thin, Obese.
 Null parity
 Medication

 Now we have come to the most important point regarding to osteoporosis which is prevention.

 This process should be implemented from childhood up to 30 years of age:

Diet rich in calcium.

Adequate physical exercise.

Adequate sun exposure (not to be overdone).

Coffee, alcohol and tobacco consumption.

Adequate and balanced nutrition.

 Do not go on diets high in proteins, do not abuse vegetarian diets (due to the high content of oxalates), no excessive consumption of sodium.

 From a point of view of nutrition the best prevention measures are the adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D in natural form which should be priority objectives from the beginning of childhood.

 It has been proven that the diet rich in calcium maintains a peak of bone mass even though it is not certain that it can be increased and significantly reduces the incidence of fractures.

 It is also a known fact that a diet rich in vitamin D together with an adequate sun exposure is fundamental for a correct intestinal absorption of calcium.

 Adequate intake of calcium by ages:

AGE 

MG. PER DAY
0 a 6 months 400
6 a 12 months 600
1 a 6 years 800
6 a 10 years  1,000
10 a 24 years 1,300
24 a 65 years(masculine)  1,000
24 a 65 years(female without estrogen)  1,500
24 a 65 years(female with estrogen) 1,000
over 65 years 1,500
Pregnancy and breast feeding 1,500

 When the prevention methods referred to above are insufficient we may revert to pharmacological methods:

Calcium supplements

Vitamin D supplements

Estrogens and substitute hormonal treatment.

Bi-phosphonates

Calcitonin

Thiazide

Fluorine

 Remember also that is is a thousand times more important to prevent than to treat osteoporosis.

FOLLOWING 20 TIPS FOR BALANCED NUTRITION


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Dear visitor: The object of this web site is to inform and educate. Therefore, the information contained herein does not substitute professional medical attention.
If you have any doubt with respect to this information consult your personal doctor.

Medical supervision by Dr. Arieh Goldberg Kalik.
Bariatric physician, certified medical nutrition specialist. Certificate # 1010084

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