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 Are substances containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and 16% nitrogen. Proteins are formed by 20 organic compounds called amino acids and according to the combination of same, one type or another will form.

 Amino acids are classified in 2 type: the non-essential amino acids that can be produced by the body and the essential amino acids which can not be produced by the same body, which are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine.

 If a food contains amino acids in the necessary proportions and quantities required by the cells of the body for reconstitution and growth of the tissues, are known as high biological value. All proteins contain 4 calories per gram.

 When proteins are mentioned, immediately we think of meat, fish, fowl, eggs; this is mistaken because milk, cheeses, ice cream, leguminous (beans, green peas, lentil), oleaginous (peanuts, pistachios, nuts, almonds) vegetables, fruits cereals, bread, rice and pasta also contain proteins.

 Proteins are essential components of the corporal cells and most of them are found in the muscles. The enzymes, hemoglobin, antibodies and hormones are proteins.

 The necessary proteins in adults is 0.8 gr. per kg of weight.


 These are substances also known as lipids and contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in minimal proportions. Fats area formed by Chylomicrons, triglycerides, acid fats, phosopho lipids, lipoproteins y cholesterol.

 Chylomicrons are minute particles of fat that appeared from 1 to 8 hours after having eaten the food.

 Triglycerides constitute the major part of these and are composed of 3 molecules of fat acids joined to a molecule of glycerol.

 Fat acids are divided into saturated and unsaturated, and the unsaturated can be divided into mono-saturated and polyunsaturated.

 The saturated are the most dangerous and the unsaturated are beneficial; usually the solid fats at room temperature are the saturated and the liquid fats are better.

Food rich in saturated fat acids are:

  • Whole milk, cream, ice cream.

  • Whole cream cheese, egg yolk.

  • Bacon, butter, lard

  • Lard, ham, pork.

  • Chocolates, cakes, cookies.

Foods rich in unsaturated acid fats are:

  • Vegetable oil, liquid margarine, fish.

  • Lipoproteins may be divided into:

    • Very low density lipoproteins

    • Low density lipoproteins

    • Intermediate density lipoproteins

    • High density lipoproteins

 High density lipoproteins are the protectors, whereas the other types are high risk for cardiovascular diseases.

 Cholesterol is a white substance, waxy but of a very different chemical structure than the past ones referred to:

 It is normally found in the tissues and it is 80% produced by the liver and plays a very important role in the formation of the cerebral and nervous tissue. It is a forerunner of vitamin D.


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Medical supervision by Dr. Arieh Goldberg Kalik.
Bariatric physician, certified medical nutrition specialist. Certificate # 1010084

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