containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and 16% nitrogen. Proteins are formed by
20 organic compounds called amino acids and according to the combination of same,
one type or another will form.
Amino acids are
classified in 2 type: the non-essential amino acids that can be produced by
the body and the essential amino acids which can not be produced by the same
body, which are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine,
phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine.
If a food contains
amino acids in the necessary proportions and quantities required by the cells
of the body for reconstitution and growth of the tissues, are known as high
biological value. All proteins contain 4 calories per gram.
When proteins are
mentioned, immediately we think of meat, fish, fowl, eggs; this is mistaken
because milk, cheeses, ice cream, leguminous (beans, green peas, lentil),
oleaginous (peanuts, pistachios, nuts, almonds) vegetables, fruits cereals,
bread, rice and pasta also contain proteins.
Proteins are essential
components of the corporal cells and most of them are found in the muscles.
The enzymes, hemoglobin, antibodies and hormones are proteins.
The necessary proteins
in adults is 0.8 gr. per kg of weight.
These are substances
also known as lipids and contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in minimal
proportions. Fats area formed by Chylomicrons, triglycerides, acid fats,
phosopho lipids, lipoproteins y cholesterol.
Chylomicrons are minute
particles of fat that appeared from 1 to 8 hours after having eaten the food.
constitute the major part of these and are composed of 3 molecules of fat
acids joined to a molecule of glycerol.
Fat acids are divided
into saturated and unsaturated, and the unsaturated can be divided into
mono-saturated and polyunsaturated.
The saturated are the
most dangerous and the unsaturated are beneficial; usually the solid fats
at room temperature are the saturated and the liquid fats are better.
Food rich in
saturated fat acids are:
Whole milk, cream, ice
Whole cream cheese, egg
Bacon, butter, lard
Lard, ham, pork.
in unsaturated acid fats are:
Vegetable oil, liquid
Lipoproteins may be divided
Very low density
lipoproteins are the protectors, whereas the other types are high risk for
Cholesterol is a white
substance, waxy but of a very different chemical structure than the past ones
It is normally found in
the tissues and it is 80% produced by the liver and plays a very important
role in the formation of the cerebral and nervous tissue. It is a forerunner
of vitamin D.
FOOD RICH IN CHOLESTEROL
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